End-user/end-user certificates, and the post-export control mechanisms sometimes associated with them, are essential tools in the fight against arms diversion. Several European States have recently undertaken measures to implement such tools. However, there are significant disparities due to varying ambitions and resources from one State to another. This analysis examines different national initiatives on post-export controls in Europe. Particular attention is paid to the study of the verification systems put in place by Switzerland and Germany, pioneers in this field.
Crédit photo : UN Photo/Staton Winter