Turquie: l'indépendance de la justice en danger

Les purges en Turquie sont largement relayées et dénoncées par la presse internationale depuis le putsch manqué du 15 juillet 2016. L’ampleur des atteintes portées au pilier de l’état de droit qu’est le système judiciaire a en effet de quoi interpeller : des procès éclairs en série, des motifs d’accusation obscurs et quelque 4 000 magistrats limogés par décret depuis le coup d’État avorté. Mais l’instrumentalisation de l’appareil judiciaire turc ne date pas de juillet 2016, il est un enjeu de pouvoir visible entre forces politiques turques depuis une dizaine d’années. En effet, depuis l’arrivée au pouvoir de l’AKP, en 2002, l’évolution du système judiciaire est fonction des relations entre trois acteurs concurrents de l’échiquier politique : le mouvement religieux Hizmet de Fethullah Gülen...

Latin America, a new El Dorado for European arms exports?

Latin American countries are today in an exceptional situation where the defense budgets are being contracted and the missions of the armed forces reoriented towards issues of public security. This Analysis presents the evolution of military spending in these countries as well as arms acquisitions: who are the major importers, who are their main suppliers and what are the current trends? It is also examining the question of transfers of small arms and light weapons and their ammunition from the European Union Member States to this region.

Crédit photo : parachutistes mexicains (Master Sgt. Adam M. Stump/USAF/Wikimedia Commons)

 

«Robots tueurs»: encadrement ou interdiction?

Ce 13 novembre 2017, les Nations unies vont ouvrir des discussions officielles sur la problématique des «robots tueurs», avec la première réunion d’un groupe d’experts[1] dédié à ce sujet. Fin août déjà, une centaine de professionnels du secteur de la robotique et de l’intelligence artificielle, dont Elon Musk[2], signaient une lettre ouverte à l’ONU demandant une interdiction des armes létales autonomes.

The role of the US in Arms Transfers to Armed Groups in Syria

Since 2012, weapons and ammunition have arrived massively to the many armed groups active in Syria, notably from the Balkans and passing through neighbouring countries which, like Saudi Arabia, claim to be the final recipients. Far from being just a case of unscrupulous exporters and importers ignoring the re-exporting ban, it appears that the United States is at the heart of these transfers.

Through two programs – the first implemented by the CIA for the benefit of opponents to the Damascus government; the second organized by the Pentagon to arm the opponents to Islamic State – the United States have indeed coordinated, facilitated and financed billions of dollars of arms purchases in third countries and supervised their transport to the Syrian rebel groups they wish to support. However, this flood of weapons has produced many unintended effects, including the supply of jihadist groups and fighting between factions armed, some by the CIA, others by the Pentagon.

Crédit photo : missile TOW américain utilisé par des combattants de l'Etat islamique

Balkan arms transfers to the Middle East and risks of diversion to armed groups

Since 2011, small arms and light weapons flows from the Balkans to the Middle East have increased sharply. While Iraq remains logically the largest importer of Balkan weapons in the region, Saudi Arabia has also established itself as a major customer. Others, in particular Turkey, Jordan and the United Arab Emirates, have also greatly expanded their arms purchases. The main exporting country to the Middle East is by far Bulgaria, followed by Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Serbia. The curve of their exports rises dramatically, with record sales in 2015 or 2016.

Yet, some of these weapons were diverted to diverse non-state armed groups operating in Syria, including "subsidiaries" of Al-Qaeda, and even Islamic State. The lax policy of the exporters is not alone to blame. These transfers are actually part of a strategy that goes well beyond the Balkan and the Middle East.

Photo credit: Serbian machine gun M02 Coyote used by a rebel in Syria (2016) - source: ARES (Armament Research Service) via Facebook.

Dépenses militaires, production et transferts d’armes - Compendium 2017

Ce rapport présente une synthèse des principales tendances et statistiques relatives aux dépenses militaires mondiales, à la production et aux transferts internationaux d’armements conventionnels, sur la base des Fact Sheets et des bases de données du Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI).
En 2016, les dépenses militaires mondiales se sont élevées à 1 666 milliards de dollars, soit 2,2% du produit intérieur brut mondial et environ 227 dollars par habitant...

Permanent Structured Cooperation: national perspectives and state of play

This Report is now available in English on the European Parliament's website.

The European Parliament commissioned GRIP with a study on Permanent Structured Cooperation. Written by Frédéric Mauro, in collaboration wiht Federico Santopinto, the study was first published in French on 17 July. 

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